Join our 70 years ITC anniversary 

Purpose of observation:

The purpose of this site is to support PhD research, synergetic to many past/ongoing and future activities in Kenya which link to, or are in support of, ITC’s mandate, water and environmental management, Climate Change and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

For the Masai Mara region, the broad objectives are to generate data to (1) improve land-atmosphere process level and coupling mechanisms at local (diurnal) to inter-annual scales, (2) improve the estimation of hydrologic variables in both space and time, and (3) to establish a calibration/validation site for soil moisture satellite remote sensing products.

For the Naivasha region, located in the Rift valley, understanding the so-called East-African “Water towers”, i.e. the high volcanic complexes, is crucial since 70% of the water resources originates here.

Participation in (inter)national programme/campaigns:

  • None

Collaboration:

  • Egerton University, Nakuru, Kenya
  • Masai Mara University, Narok, Kenya
  • Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA), Nairobi, Kenya
  • Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), Nairobi, Kenya
  • Kenya Flower Council, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Upande Ltd, Nairobi, Kenya
  • UNESCO-IHE, Delft, The Netherlands
  • Deltares, Delft, The Netherlands
  • Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
  • Waterschap Brabantse Delta, The Netherlands
  • Waterschap Hoogheemraadschap de Stichtse Rijnlanden, Houten, The Netherlands
  • Waterschap Noorderzijlvest, Groningen, The Netherlands

Externally funded projects:

  • EOIA project, 2009-2015, An Earth Observation- and Integrated Assessment approach to the Governance of Lake Naivasha (EOIA). Funded by NWO-WOTRO, budget: 690 k€.
  • FAO FRAME project, 2016-2022, funded by Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), Rome, Italy, budget 3800 k€.
  • IWRAP project, 2013-2017, funded by WWF-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, budget 794 k€.
  • Afrialliance project, 2016-2021, funded by European Commission, budget 3240 k€.

Major scientific achievements:

  • The major achievements reached by using data collected at the Kenyan Earth Observation site are provided in the publication of PhD dissertations, MSc theses and peer reviewed articles, which are detailed below.

PhD dissertations:

  • Margaret Kimani, (2019). Towards improved seasonal rainfall predictions over East Africa", Enschede: University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC).
  • Vincent Omondi Odongo, (2016). How climate and land use determine the hydrology of Lake Naivasha Basin, Enschede: University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC).
  • Dr. Jeniffer Kinoti, (2011). Planning of system innovations in watersheds: spatial mapping of environmental and hydrological determinants in Pangani and upper Ewaso Ng'iro north river basins, Africa, Enschede: University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC).

Ongoing:

  • Donald Rwasoka - “Towards improved hydro-meteorological forecasting of flash floods in Africa”
  • Yasser Abbasi - "Evaluating and Monitoring of Environmental Exposure to Micro-Pollutants"
  • Kumah Kwabena Kingsley – “Towards near real time rainfall observation using data from commercial telecommunication networks and geostationary satellite observations”
  • Sammy Njuki - “Towards a near real time remote sensing based agricultural water productivity monitoring system: A case of the Naivasha Basin, Kenya”

MSc theses:

  • Abdelati, S. (2002). Design of an information system to support soil degradation mapping and monitoring in lake Naivasha area (Kenya). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Abdulahi, B. H. (1999). Surface water - groundwater interaction. Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Adu-Nsiah, M. (1998). Habitat and bio-diversity mapping of the wetlands of lake Naivasha, Kenya using RS and GIS: A study on the distribution of the african fish eagle and hippopotamus. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Agustina, S. R. (2008). Land Use/Farming System and Livelihood Changes in the Upper Catchment of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ahammad, S. (2001). Economy versus Environment: how a system with RS & GIS can assisst in decisions for water resource management, a case study in the Lake Naivasha, Central Rift Valley Province, Kenya ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ahmed, A. (1999). Estimating lake evaporation using meteorological data & remote sensing. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Al-Sabbagh, M. (2001). Surface runoff modelling using GIS and remote sensing: case study in Malewa catchment, Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Alemseged, T. (2002). Explaining satelite-derived actual evapotranspiration patterns in homogeneously cropped large fields. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Alfarra, A. (2004). Modelling water Resource management in Lake Naivasha. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Armstrong, M. F. (2002). Water balance of the southern Kenya rift valley lakes. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Arwa, D. O. (2001). GIS Based Rainfall – Runoff Model for the Turasha Sub Catchment Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Bekalo, D. J. (2011). Relating land, people and environment in Lake Naivasha's watershed, Kenya. University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation ITC. thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Bemigisha, J. R. (1998). An assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of a papyrus swamp: the application of Remote Sensing, GIS, and a Decision Support System for the monitoring and management of the wetland vegetation of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Bernard, M. S. (2008). Simulation of maize production using a pixel based weather generator: Case of Lake Naivasha catchment. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Bezu, T. B. (2001). Building a soil information system for multi source data integration (A case study in Lake Naivasha area, Kenya). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Bhandari, A. K. (2005). Study to assess accurate spatial rainfall data in lake naivasha basin kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Bijleveld, N. (2010). Challenges and Opportunities for REDD at Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Vrije Universiteit. MSc thesis.Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 
  • Boix Fayos, C. (2002). Competition over Water Resources: Analysis and Mapping of Water-Related Conflicts in the Catchment of Lake Naivasha (Kenya). ITC. thesis. Enschede. 
  • Bolaños, F. J. B. (2001). Building a dynamic water quality evaluation system for lake Naivasha exploration in the use of DMS. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Boonstra, M. (2010). Sustaining and enlarging the Payment for Watershed Services (PWS) program in the Naivasha Catchment: An analysis for developing sustainability mechanisms to sustain the PWS program. Vrije Universiteit. MSc thesis.Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 
  • De Jong, T. (2011). Water abstraction survey in lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. Wageningen University. BSc. Internship thesis.Wageningen. 
  • De Jong, T. (2011). Review on river water resource monitoring and allocation planning in the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya. BSc. thesis. 
  • De Silva, A. U. (1998). A preliminary study on the fate of agrochemicals in the vadose zone environment. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Donia, N. S. (1998). Integration of GIS and computer modelling to study the water quality of lake naivasha, central rift valley kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Dung, D. V. (2001). Evaluation of irrigation practice at farm level using GIS RS data and swap model: Case study at the lake Naivasha project, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Farah, H. O. (2001). Estimation of regional evaporation under different weather conditions from satellite and meteorological data: a case study in the Naivasha Basin, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Fathy, A. H., A. S. M. Gieske and A. M. J. Meijerink (1999). Time series analysis of NOAA VHRR images of lake Naivasha basin (Kenya). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Fauzia, I. (2008). Spatial information sharing to enhance local based management an analysis of Institutional aspect of Lake Naivasha as a Ramsar site. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ghawana, T. (2008). Flowering Economy of Naivasha: Impacts of Major Farming Systems on the Local Economy. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Girma, A. (2001). Soil survey to predict characteristics relevant to land management. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Gitonga, M. S. (1999). Study of long term waterbalance of lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Gonzalez, I. G. (2001). Peak runoff estimation of the unguaged area in Naivasha basin using the slope area method empirical formulas. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Graham, A. (1998). Groundwater recharge estimation of the Malewa catchmen Naivasha Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Gressando, Y. (1999). Application of geophysical techniques for groundwater investigation in lake Naivasha area, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Hagos, G. G. (2008). Strategies to increase water use efficiency of irrigated farm (South of Lake Naivasha, Kenya). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Hammouda, F. A. H. (1999). Time series analysis of NOAA-AVHRR composite images of lake Naivasha basin. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, THe Netherlands. 
  • Hamududu, B. H. (1998). Erosion assessment for large basins using remote sensing and GIS. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Huatuco, L. D. H. (1998). Water availability assessment using multi-objective decision support system (MODSS): a study around Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Jolicoeur, J. L. C. (2000). Groundwater contamination potential of agriculture around Lake Naivasha: Comparison of five unsaturated soil zones models. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Kadupitya, H. K. (2002). Empirical Evaluation and Comparative Study of Use of Erosion Modelling in Small Catchments in Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Kibona, S. R. U. (2000). Temporal and spatial varation of groundwater level north of Lake Naivasha, Kenya (Analysed using Modflow). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Kwacha, J. C. P. H. (1998). Vulnerability of soils to change in agricultural use around Lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Kyuma, R. (2008). A dry season grazing reserves site selection model for drought management in the pastoral production systems. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Legese Reta, G. (2011). Groundwater and lake water balance of lake Naivasha using 3 - D transient groundwater model. University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation ITC. thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Lukman, A. P. (2003). Regional impact of climate change and variability on water resources. Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Mclean, P. (2001). Spatial analysis of water quality and eutrophication controls in lake Naivasha Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Meins, F.M. (2013) Evaluation of spatial scale alternatives for hydrological modelling of the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. University of Twente. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Mekonnen, W. G. (1999). Determination of regional scale crop coefficients for crop water requirement calculations: a RS perspective (A Case Study of the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Mena Lopez, S. (2002). Papyrus conservation around lake Naivasha: development of alternative management schemes in Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Mohammedjamal, A. (2006). Assessment of artificial groundwater recharge using greenhouses runoff, North-east Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Molitor, A.-K. (2011). Drought Vulnerability in Resource-Based Livelihoods in the Lake Naivasha Catchment. Diploma thesis, Institute for Food and Resource Economics, University of Bonn, Germany. 
  • Moncada, J. (2001). Spatial distribution of pesticide contamination potential around lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Morgan, N. E. (1998). Groundwater chemistry and quality assessment of the lake Naivasha area, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Mpusia, P. T. O. (2006). Comparison of water consumption between greenhouse and outdoor cultivation. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Mulenga, S. C. (2002). Analysis of the leaching process in the intensive flower farms around lake Naivasha: SULMAC farm case study Naivasha basin, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Munoz Villers, L. E. (2002). Spatial water quality monitoring and assessment in Malewa river and lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Musota, R. (2008). Using weap and scenrios to assess sustainability water resources in a basin.case study for lake Naivasha catchment, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Muthuwatta, L. P. (2004). Long term rainfall-runoff-lakelevel modelling of the Lake Naivasha Basin, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Nabide, I. K. (2002). Development of 3d conceptual hydrogeological model for lake naivasha area. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschdede, The Netherlands. 
  • Nagelhout, A. (2001). Performance analysis of small format aerial photography (SFAP) in assessing current status and trends in wind erosion ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Nalugya, E. (2003). Estimation of direct recharge on natural vegetations of the Lake Aquifer ( A case study of Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Oppong-Boateng, R. (2001). Assessment of the use of groundwater for irrigation in the southern part of lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ouma, O. C. (2001). Pastoralists dilemma: assessment of changes in livestock productionand household dynamics among the Masaai due to development of boreholes in Moindabi, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Owor, M. (2000). The Long-Term Interaction of Groundwater with Lake Naivasha, Kenya: A numerical simulation of the relationship between groundwater and lake allowing for fluctuating lake levels. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Pastor, M. S. (2001). Geophysical study of the groundwater system south of lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Perera, A. P. G. R. L. (2002). Development of information system to support hydro envirmonmental economic modelling of lake Naivasha area. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Permatasari, A. D. (2004). Environmental impact of urban storm runoff and sewage from Naivasha town on Lake Naivasha. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Pesantez, R. M. (2001). Matter fluxes in the Turusha Catchment Kenya: an exploratory analysis. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Podder, M. A. H. (1998). Estimation of long term inflow into lake naivasha from the Malewa catchment, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ramírez Hernández, R. (1999). Groundwater flow modelling of Naivasha basin, Kenya. ITC. thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ranatunga, D. M. B. (2001). Land suitability assessment for housing and local road construction. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Ringo, D. E. (1999). Assessment of soil erosion in the Turasha catchment in the Lake Naivasha area, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Rupasingha, R. A. P. (2002). Use of GIS and RS assessing lake sedimentation processes: case study for Naivashsa lake, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Salah, A. (1999). Productive and suistainable use of water among competing sectors. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Schilt, W. (2009). Community Forest Management: a framework of analysis for the long-term self-sufficiency of CFM projects. Vrije universiteit Amsterdam. MSc thesis.Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 
  • Sharamo, U. G. (2002). Hydrological investigation for water harvesting potential using GIS, RS, and runoff models: a case study of Lake Naivasha Area, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Shepande, C. (2002). Soils and land use with particular attention to land evaluation for selected land use types in the lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.
  • Simfukwe, P. (2001). The use of multivariate classification in the defintion of soil series in lake naivasha area. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Suangkiattikun, C. (2003). Solute balance modelling of Lake Naivasha (Kenya) ; Application of DMS. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Tessema, M. A. (2001). Estimation of rainfall using Meteosat TIR data for the Naivasha catchment. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Tiruneh, B. A. (2004). Modelling water quality using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Torrion, J. (2002). Land degradation detection, mapping and monitoring in the lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Trinh, M. V. (2000). Chemical runoff potential of agriculture around Lake Naivasha Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Trottman, D. (1998). Modelling groundwater storage change in response to fluctuating levels of lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Tsiboah, T. (2002). 2d resistivity and time-domain EM in aquifer mapping: a case study north of lake Naivasha, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Tulu, M. S. (2005). SRTM DEM Suitability runoff studies. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Urassa, G. J. (1999). The wetland soils around Lake Naivasha, Kenya: characterization and ecological functions. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Voorpijl, R. (2011). FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN KENYA: The gains and losses of foreign involvement. Radboud University Nijmegen. MSc. thesis.Nijmegen. 
    Wambui, N. G. (2011). An assessment of water use efficiency in Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya. University of Nairobi. MSc thesis. Nairobi, Kenya. 
  • Were, K. O. (2008). Monitoring Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Land Cover Changes in Lake Naivasha Drainage Basin, Kenya ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Xu, T. Z. (1999). Water quality assessment and pesticide fate modeling in the lake Naivasha area, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Yihdego, Y. (2005). A three dimensional ground water model of the aquifers lake Naivasha area, Kenya. ITC. MSc thesis. Enschede, The Netherlands. 
  • Zhaliazniak, A. (2009). Me, myself and the Environment: self-sufficiency of ecotourism projects in the Lake Naivasha area, Kenya. Vrije Universiteit. MSc thesis.Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 

Publications:

  • None specified

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