Module 3


Whenever you use information in a report from other sources it is compulsory to cite the original source in the text and reference the source in your reference list at the end of a report. It is not allowed to use information from somebody else as being your own information.

What should be referenced?

  • Quotations, summaries, paraphrases
  • Facts from references
  • Distinctive or authoritative ideas

Why do you need to reference sources?

  • Plagiarism is not allowed in sciences
  • Allow reader to check original sources
  • Justification for statements
  • Safeguard against mistakes made by the other author

Criteria for referencing: the 3 C’s:

  • Clear - must give full details of the item
  • Consistent - cite in the same way
  • Correct - use the proper structure


Examples of References

Format Article in a journal

Author(s). Year of publication, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, range of article pages. DOI:


Schulze, E. D. (2014). Large-scale biogeochemical research with particular reference to forest ecosystems, an overview. Forest Ecology and Management, 316, 3–8.

Vintrou, E., Desbrosse, A., Bégué, A., Traoré, S., Baron, C., & Lo Seen, D. (2012). Crop area mapping in West Africa using landscape stratification of MODIS time series and comparison with existing global land products. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 14(1), 83–93.

Format Books

Author(s). Year of publication, Book Title, Place of publication: Publisher.


- Single author:

Huchzermeyer, M. (2011). Cities with Slums : From Informal Settlement Eradication to a Right to the City in Africa. Chicago: Juta Academic.

- Multiple author:

Elachi, C., & Zyl, J. J. (2011). Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing (Vol. 41). New York : Wiley.

- Edited work:

Weng, Q. (Ed.). (2011). Advances in environmental remote sensing : sensors, algorithms, and applications. Boca Raton : CRC Press.

Format Chapter or article in an edited book

Author(s) of chapter. Year of publication, 'Chapter title', in Book Title, ed(s). Editor(s) of book,  Place of publication, Publisher, chapter, (pages). DOI


Kar, D. (2013). The Limnology of Lentic System. In Wetlands and Lakes of the World (pp. 27–31). New Delhi: Springer India.

Format MSc thesis 

Author. Year of publication, Thesis Title (MSc thesis), Place of publication: Publisher


Ali, H. T. (2016). Digital urban terrain characterization for 1D2D hydronamic flood modelling in Kigali, Rwanda (MSc thesis). Enschede: University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation (ITC).

Format Website

Author/editor. (Last update or copyright date), Title. Retrieved from -date of acces : <URL>


The World Bank. (2012). KEI and KI Indexes. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from


Format Norm or Patent 

Author/editor. (Last update or copyright date), Title. Place of publication, Publisher


ISO. (2012). NEN-EN-ISO 19152 : 2012 Geographic information : Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) ((ISO 19152.). Delft: International Standardization Organization (ISO), Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut (NEN).

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